There are many types of fabrication techniques where the most common ones are cutting and machining, punching and drilling, straightening, bending and rolling, fitting and reaming, fastening, finishing etc.
For cutting there are numerous ways and it is done with the saw, plasma torches, water jets, and lasers.
The process of machining involves removal of the piece of metal from a piece of material. It is performed either on lathe, where the material will rotate against a cutting tool, or in some other kind of cutting machine.
Some parts require bending and with the help of a press brake which has a set of dies to pinch the metal, it is useful for forming a crease. This is performed in specific cases only.
To make a long cut on the piece of metal is known as shearing and it is performed on a sheet metal.
To join two pieces of metal, welding is done. Various kinds of welding is performed on range of metals used for diverse applications.
As fabrication process is quite complex the composition of materials which are being used need to have some desired proprieties. Features of these fabrication materials are stated below:
Casting is a fabrication process which is 6000 years old and, in this method, a liquid metal is forced into a mould which is then allowed to cool so it can harden in the required shape. For applications that need complex geometries it is an ideal method. Common metals used for casting are steel, magnesium, gold, silver, iron, copper, etc.
Flat metal Is a type of metal that has been rolled or pressed in thin or flat pieces. Thickness of a metal sheet varies greatly and is measured in gauges. Three general categories of flat metal raw materials are foil or leaf metal which is the thinnest type of flat metal, second one is sheet metal and the thickness of this metal is less than 6mm and the third one is plate metal is thicker than 0.25 inches.
The name expanded metal is derived from the process which is used for creating it. To create holes in diamond shape that are surrounded by interlinked metal strands a stock metal sheeting is first sheared in the press and then the shearing expands the metal to its final size. Expanded metal raw materials come in various grating sizes and standard thicknesses.
Hardware is defined as the many standardized parts or fittings which are useful to make a product strong, easier to fabricate and more functional. It includes basic raw materials like handles, locks, latches, chains, etc.